United nations organization
The terrible destruction brought by the 2nd World War compelled the different counties of the world to unite them and stop war in future to save human beings from further annihilation. Every independent country of the world can be a member of UNO. It helps the member countries to solve their social, educational, scientific and other problems. The Headquarter of UNO is located at New York (USA).
The main organs of the UNO are the General Assembly and the Security Council.
The General Assembly:
The General Assembly discusses and considers the problems of war, dispute between member countries. Monetary help is given to the backward and under-developed nations, They are also helped in case of an earthquake, a flood or a famine.
Whenever a member country has complained against another member, it takes the case to the UNO. The General Assembly passes resolution and makes decision after a good deal of discussion. But it does not have the power to get its decisions implemented.
The meeting of the General Assembly is called in September every year. Any head of the State or President of a country can address the General Assembly. Every member nation of the UNO can send its five representatives to the General Assembly.
The Security Council:
It consists of 15 members, five members are permanent. They belong to the most powerful countries i.e. the USA, Russia, Britain, France and the People's Republic of China. The Security Council discusses urgent matters of war or any disputes or serious nature between members. It can pass a resolution on a certain dispute and has the power of implement its decisions. It can send peace force to any affected country. Each of the permanent members has the right of veto a resolution. It can reject any resolution. The big powers can ''veto'' any resolution for their interest and jeopardize a rightful decision.
It manages the administrative affairs of the UNO. The Secretary General is the head of the Secretariat. A number of large staff assists the Secretary General and other organs and agencies in maintaining peace and making efforts for development of backward countries.
The question arises whether UNO has fulfilled the purpose for which it was established. The answer is in the negative. The countries of the 3rd world or weak nations have grievances against UNO. In their view, it is the club of powerful nations where they work for their own interests.
The UNO has failed in maintaining peace and order in the world. There have been regular wars between India and Pakistan, Israel and the Arabs, Ethiopia and Somalia, Iran and Iraq, Kuwait and Iraq. The UNO sometimes helped to cease the situation. It succeeded in ending the Korean War and in preventing a war between U.S.A. and Russia over Cuba in 1960. It gave her approval in 1991 to take military action by the western powers to oust the forces of Iraq from Kuwait. But it was only in the interests of western powers. They wanted their presence and control over the oil fields in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait.
The UNO has failed in implementing the resolution of the Security Council for holding a plebiscite in Kashmir. India has denied the resolution and her high handedness still countries.
General Assembly has no power to implement its decisions. None of the permanent members should have the right to veto the decisions of the Security Council. There is a bright side of the picture too. The UNO has helped its members in solving their economic and social problems like control of population, narcotics, drugs, status of women and human rights.
The organs of World Health Organization, International Lab our Organization and Children's Welfare Organization are doing useful work.
The International Court of Justice:
The International Court of Justice is another important organ of UNO. With its headquarters at Hague (Holland) its function is to settle disputes between member countries. The disputes should be limited to international law. The World Bank offers loans to member nations on their request. The interest rates are much higher. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) works in close associations with the World Bank. Its purpose is to encourage economic development in the member countries.
The UNO can work more successfully if it is impartial, atomic weapons are destroyed and all the member countries are given equal status.