Saturday, 9 September 2017

Economic Development



Economic Development
Economic development is very important and essential for the progress of every country. Economic development means to improve the quality of life for the mass while respecting their traditional values and beliefs. For this purpose, adequate housing, good health, clean water, sanitation, full employment are only means to guarantee a decent standard of living for our present and our future generation.
Economic development should be given first order priority. First of all government may implement overall strategies to ensure an equitable share of natural wealth and resources as natural resources are closely related to economic development. It is within the fundamental rights of nation to manage the natural resources and an equitable share in the wealth of the lands. This will enable the nation to become economically self-sufficient.
Development of Political Science in Pakistan
In Pakistan, although political science is recognized as a conventional discipline, however, it has yet to emerge as a discipline with independent base in social sciences. Its problems and prospects of growth and development need to be seem with at least three references, First the colonial legacy of the state, second the status of social sciences in the country and third lack of conductive academic environment for social research.
In the development of the countries there is an intricate relationship between the evolution of social sciences and the process of decolonisation. Analyzing the relationship on Indian scholar ''Yogesh  Atal'' has remarked.
Born together in the same historical moment, capitalism, colonialism and social sciences arrived from the west and became implanted on these countries that became colonies of the western power.
in post independence the main problem was how to redefine or restructure. This relationship so in Pakistan. Many academic programms in the field of political science were structured in such a way that they emphasized Western political thought without sufficiently taking into account the socio political realities of Pakistan state. Pakistan achieved independence but intellectual dependence persisted. In context of social sciences and with reference to political science this may be attributed to three types of constraints, firstly the lack of qualified political scientists, second inadequate attention was paid to redesign the political sciences according to the national needs.
In Pakistan political sciences is not taken as social sciences rather it is equated with history. The problem with the history of the Pakistan is that it is replete with documentation and description of events or personalities. No attention is paid to explain or analyse the social forces that generate a particular event or bring crisis and change in the national polity. political sciences in Pakistan in Particular has stunted the shadow of history.
Now if we want political sciences grow and expand as a discipline in the country then it must stand on its own legs i-e focus on concept formation theory building and simultaneously should make use of history to explore and social change in country.
Since its inception Pakistan has been confronted with political crisis, Pakistani elite have found it difficult to develop consensus. On the nature and direction of the political system. The environment of political instability and at times of political control forced political scientists to fall back on history rather then investigate the contemporary political realities of Pakistan.

Rural Development in Pakistan

More than 70% of the population of Pakistan live in rural areas. In present age, the whole world is turning into global village so in the progress of the country, development of villages and rural areas is as important as urban development. Usually the vast peasant majority, living at subsistence level is neglected in the government policies. In urban areas, facilities are more than the facilities provided to rustics.
Firstly, in rural areas medical or health care is non existent or unsatisfactory. Were health care is available, it is at the district level. Virtually they are self medicated with medicines available in the local market.
As far as education is concerned there are inadequate facilities of education. In rural areas there are no schools, colleges and universities. The education system suffers from a wide range of problems, including lack of facilities, under trained staff, lack of books and materials, low pay for teachers and an ineffective curriculum.
There is also shortage of key inputs (water control, fertilizers, improved seeds, credit and transport), inaccessibility due to very poor rural infrastructure including roads and communication. There are no markets in villages. Sometime people have to travel a lot for buying the goods of their daily needs.
Now the problem is with designing effective rural development initiatives. In this connection two things are more important. One is the issue of correctly analyzing social relations with respect to organize community development. Second is related to the lack of motivation in people and government to participate in development scheme.
First, some social development programs of rural areas are best left entirely to the national government and aid programs should directly funded by the government. Aid programs that provide funding for health, education or agricultural services should not be cut. Government should support villages and remote areas in their funds. This decision would prove positive step towards the development of rural areas.
Secondly, the most important areas are health and education. In this regard, the ministry of health and ministry of education should strengthen, its organizational structure and planning capabilities at the central level and should state goal improving care at the district level, making it more available and affordable. For both the ministry of health and ministry of education a key factor lies in their ability to pay a living wage to teachers and local health-care providers.
According to survey for the development of rural areas, there is a clear need for more local level research. Since rural villages very greatly in terms of specific conditions. It is only logical that something that works in one area may not work in another. Before plans can be drafted for a particular area, research should be done in the region to try to understand community composition and characteristics.
Thus there is a great need of specialized planning and program and if government funding and foreign development aid is to begin to reach to the 70% of population who live in rural areas. This would ensure a development life in villages.

Relevant Articles:

The economic stake
 
The immediate economic stake is access to the world's largest sources of oil and natural gas outside of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). Since economic interest rather than ideological alignment is the main force underlying the rivalry alignments can be fluid. Iran and Russia are allied in their approach to Caspian and Central Asian oil, favoring Iran as the main southerly route, while Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and the U.S. favor an alternate route through Afghanistan. While the Central Asian states have different international orientations, in particular toward Russia, their attitudes toward the conflict over pipeline routes are essentially pragmatic they stand to benefit from any southern export route and they have not lined up clearly on one side or the other.

What is Capitalism Economics 
Capitalism means the entrusting of the economic process of society to the guidance of the private businessman. It first developed in eighteenth century in Britain, later it was transplanted to north-western Europe and North America. From the very beginning of capitalism it has been characterized by a few basic traits

1 comment:

  1. I have seen your blog post augmented to the research paper online which is good to know about it, you have done good job on this blog and its post....i hope you will keep doing well...

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